Glossary Terms

Glossary terms

a
Alpha(α)-synucleinsearch for term

A protein expressed prominently in the central nervous system. Misfolding of this protein is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including PD.

b
BSITsearch for term

Brief Smell Identification Test (BSITi ) - a 12 item version of the UPSITi (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test- 40 odors) useful for detecting smell loss quickly.

c
Capgras Syndromesearch for term

A cognitive disorder where individuals believe people they know have been replaced by identical “impostors”.

d
DaTScansearch for term

A commercially available scan that uses an intravenously administered radiolabeled ligand that binds the dopamine transporter (DAT) on the synaptic terminals of nigrostriatal neurons.

DBSsearch for term

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBSi) - a surgical treatment involving the implantation of electrodes in the brain. Used to deliver electricity to treat symptoms of PD.

Diathermysearch for term

The therapeutic generation of local heat in body tissues by high-frequency electromagnetic currents and dangerous when combined with DBSi.

Dopamine Dysregulation Syndromesearch for term

A syndrome secondary to a dopamine reward system malfunction after long exposure to dopamine replacement (sinemet). Characterized by behavioral disturbances including compulsive need for excess medication, and other behavioral features. A similar syndrome may occur with dopamine agonists and is called impulse control disorder and commonly manifests with excessive shopping, gambling, eating, hypersexuality or other behaviors.

e
Epworth Sleepiness Scalesearch for term

A test used to measure daytime sleepiness.

f
Folstein Testsearch for term

Same as MMSEi or Mini-Mental State Examination - a test used to evaluate cognitive impairment.

Frozen Shouldersearch for term

The loss of motion in the shoulder due to inflammation and pain.

l
Lewy Bodysearch for term

An abnormal nervous system aggregates that include the protein α-synuclein. Lewy bodies are associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases, not only PD.

LSVT - BIGsearch for term

Lee Silverman Treatment (LSVT - BIGi) - a method used for improving motion in individuals diagnosed with PD by emphasizing exaggerated movements.

LSVT – LOUDsearch for term

Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT – LOUDi) - a method used for improving voice and speech in individuals diagnosed with PD by emphasizing in high phonatory-respiratory effort.

m
MMSEsearch for term

Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSEi) - a test used to evaluate cognitive impairment.

MoCAsearch for term

The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCAi) - a test used to evaluate cognitive impairment.

Multiple Sleep Latency Testsearch for term

A test used to measure daytime sleepiness.

n
Neuroleptic Malignant-like Syndromesearch for term

A reaction that may occur from sudden withdrawal of dopamine and it may lead to severe parkinsonism, fever, blood in the urine, blood pressure fluctuations, respiratory depression, and other serious consequences.

NICEsearch for term

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence – United Kingdom

o
Oculogyric Crisessearch for term

An acute dystonic reaction usually secondary to a neuroleptic or other drug treatment. The eyes may roll up or move to a fix position for minutes or hours.

p
Parkinsearch for term

A protein encoded by the PARK2 gene. It has been associated with PD, but exact function is unknown. A mutation in PARKINi can lead to a genetic form of PD.

Pull Testsearch for term

A test used to check for balance and ability to correct balance when pulled.

q
QUIPsearch for term

Parkinson’s Disease Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders Questionnaire (QUIPi) - a three section screening questionnaire used to evaluate impulsive – compulsive disorders in PD.

r
RBDsearch for term

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBDi) - a sleep disorder in which a person acts out their dreams during the rapid eye movement phase of sleep where muscles are normally at complete rest.

u
UPSITsearch for term

University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSITi) - a 'scratch and sniff' test of 40 odors developed by the University of Pennsylvania, commonly abnormal in early PD.

“off”search for term

When levodopa medication has worn off and patient starts developing typical symptoms of PD (tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, etc.)

“on”search for term

When a patient has taken dopamine replacement therapy or has a DBSi device and they feel subjectively "on" with reduction in their symptoms.